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  •   State: 
    Juneau City and Borough
      County FIPS: 
    58°18′00″N 134°24′58″W
      Area total: 
    3254.70 sq mi
      Area land: 
    2,704.03 sq mi (7,003.41 km²)
      Area water: 
    550.67 sq mi (1,426.23 km²)
    33 ft (10 m)
    1881; Incorporated 1900 Home-rule city October 1960 Borough September 30, 1963 (Greater Juneau Borough) July 1, 1970 (City and Borough of Juneau)
  •   Latitude: 
      Dman name cbsa: 
    Juneau, AK
    Alaska Standard Time (AKST) UTC-9:00; Alaska Daylight (AKDT) UTC-8:00
      ZIP codes: 

    Juneau, Juneau City and Borough, Alaska, United States

  •   Population: 
      Population density: 
    11.93 residents per square mile of area (4.61/km²)
      Household income: 
      Unemployment rate: 
  •   Sales taxes: 

The City and Borough of Juneau, more commonly known simply as Juneau (JOO-noh; Tlingit: Dzánti K'ihéeni [tsnt khín]), is the capital city of the state of Alaska. Located in the Gastineau Channel and the Alaskan panhandle, it is a unified municipality and the second-largest city in the United States by area. Juneau was named the capital of Alaska in 1906, when the government of what was then the District of Alaska was moved from Sitka as dictated by the U.S. Congress in 1900. The municipality unified on July 1, 1970, when Juneau merged with the city of Douglas and the surrounding Greater Juneau Borough to form the current municipality. As of the 2020 census, the City and borough had a population of 32,255, making it the third-most populous city in Alaska after Anchorage and Fairbanks. The city is named after a gold prospector from Quebec, Joe Juneau; the place was once called Rockwell and then Harrisburg (after Juneau's co-prospector, Richard Harris). The Tlingits name of the town is Dz ntik'i Héeni ("Base of the Flounder's River"), and Auke Bay just north ofJuneau proper is called Áak'w ("Little lake," áa 'lake,' -k 'diminutive') in TlingIT.


The Gastineau Channel was a fishing ground for the Auke (A'akw Kwáan) and Taku tribes, who had inhabited the surrounding area for thousands of years. In August 2016, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Juneau has become a major social center for the Tlingit, Haida, and Tsimshian of Southeast Alaska. The city and state supported Sealaska Heritage Institute in documenting the 78 acres (32 ha) site. They consider it sacred territory, both because of the burying ground and the importance of the point in their traditions of gathering sustenance from the sea. They continue to gather clams, gumboot chitons, grass and sea urchins there, as well as tree bark for medicinal uses. The first European to see the Juneau area was Joseph Whidbey, master of the Discovery during George Vancouver's 179195 expedition. In 1880, Sitka mining engineer George Pilz offered a reward to any local native in Alaska who could lead him to gold-bearing ore. A local native arrived with some ore, and several prospectors were sent to investigate. On December 14, 1881, a miners' meeting of 72 persons decided to name the settlement Juneau, after prospector Joe Juneau. It was the first European American settlement founded in this territory after the United States purchased Alaska. It had a population of over 100 and was known as Rockwell, after Lt. Com. Charles Rockwell.


The City and Borough of Juneau includes Douglas Island, a tidal island to the west of mainland Juneau. The city's climate is heavily influenced by the proximity of the Pacific Ocean, specifically the warm Alaska Current, and the Coast Mountains that form a natural orographic barrier for incoming air. The Juneau area is in a transition zone between a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb) and an oceanic climate. The 2014 Palma Bay earthquake caused widespread outages to telecommunications in the area due to damage to a fiber optic cable serving the area. Juneau, Alaska, shares its eastern border with the Canadian province of British Columbia. It is the only U.S. state capital to border another country. Temperatures above 75 °F (23.9 °C) are not unheard of but are rare. Precipitation falls on an average 230 days per year, averaging 62.27 inches (1,580 mm) at the airport (1981-2010 normals), but ranging from 55 to 92 inches (1,400 to 2,340 mm) depending on location. Both temperatures and precipitation are set to increase in Juneau in future years due to climate change due to El Niño or La Niña. The coldest temperature ever recorded at Juneau International Airport since July 1943, officially recorded was 22 °C (30 °F) on February 2, 1968, January 12, 1972, while the hottest was 90 °F on July 7, 1975.


As of the 2010 census, there were 31,275 people, 12,187 households, and 7,742 families residing in the city/borough. The population density was 11.3 per square mile (4.4/km²), making it the least densely populated state capital. There were 13,055 housing units at an average density of 4.0 per squaremile (1.5/ km²) The racial makeup of the city-borough was 69.4% White (67.4%. Non-Hispanic White, down from 83.2% in 1980), 0.9% African American, 11.8% Native American or Alaska Native, 6.1% Asian, 0.3% Chinese and 0.2%. The median income for a household in theCity/borough was $62,034, and $70,284 for a family. 6.0% of the population and 3.7% of families were below the poverty line, including 6.7. of those under the age of 18. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.10. The median age of Juneau was 35 years. For every 100 females, there are 101.5 males. For each 100 females age 18 and over, there is 100.2 males. It is the state capital of Alaska. Juneau first appeared on the 1890 U.S. Census. It formally incorporated in 1900. The state capital is located on the Alaskan Peninsula.


As the capital of Alaska, the primary employer in Juneau is government. State government offices and their indirect economic impact compose approximately one-quarter of Juneau's economy. In 2005, the cruise ship industry was estimated to bring nearly one million visitors to Juneau for up to 11 hours at a time. The fishing industry is still a major part of the Juneau economy, while not as strong as when the halibut schooner fleet generated considerable profits. In 2004 it took in 15 million pounds of fish and shellfish, valued at 21.5 million dollars, according to the National Marine Fisheries Service. Real estate agencies, federally funded highway construction, and mining are still viable non-government local industries. Juneau hosts a major Zip-line attraction developed by Experience Based Learning. Alaska Seaplanes, an airline, and Highliner Construction, a general contractor are based there as well. As of Census 2010, there were 1,107 businesses with operations in the borough. With a population of 31,275, a per capita of roughly 28 people per business is the average for Juneau, Alaska. The city's only power utility is Alaska Electric Light & Power (AEL&P). Most of the electricity in the Borough is generated at the Snettisham Hydroelectric facility in the southern end of the borough, accessible only by boat or plane. In April 2008, an avalanche destroyed three transmission towers, forcing AEL&p to supply almost all of the Borough's electricity from diesel-powered generators for one month.


Juneau hosts the annual Alaska Folk Festival, Juneau Jazz & Classics music festival, and Celebration, a biennial Alaska Native cultural festival. The city-owned Treadwell ice-skating rink is located on the south end of Douglas Island. The Juneau Symphony performs regularly and the Juneau Lyric Opera and Opera to Go are the two local opera companies. The local art house cinema is Gold Town Nickelodeon which plays independent films, foreign films, classics, and also runs the drive-in. The University of Alaska Southeast Campus offers lectures, concerts, and theater performances. Sealaska Heritage, the nonprofit affiliate of the Sealaska Corporation, operates The Walter Soboleff Building which is decorated by carvings and hosts cultural exhibits. Juneau Arts & Humanities Council coordinates events and operates the Juneaux Arts & Culture Center, which features a community center, gallery and lobby shop. The City of Juneau is home to the Alaska State Museum, which is open to the public on weekdays from 9am to 5pm. The state legislature is based in Juneau and has its own city hall, which was built in the early 20th century. It is the only city in the state to have its own state legislature, which dates back to the 19th century and was the seat of the state legislature until it was taken over by the State of Alaska in the 1930s. The town has a state-owned ski resort, Eaglecrest, located on Douglas Island, that is open for figure skating, hockey and free open skate.

Efforts to move state capital

In 1960, 56% of voters voted against a measure to move the capital to a location in the "Cook Inlet-Railbelt Area" In 1974, at a time when Alaska was expected to be flush with new funds from the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, Alaskan voters approved an initiative to move capital. In 1978, voters also approved the Fiscally Responsible Alaskans Needing Knowledge (FRANK) Initiative, which required that all costs of moving the capital be disclosed and approved before the move commenced. In 1994, a statewide initiative to moving Alaska's capital to Wasilla was defeated by a vote of 116,277 (54.7%) to 96,398 (45.3%). At the same time, 77% of Voters approved a renewed FRANK Initaitve. In 2002, Alakan voters again voted against moving the state's capital. Advocacy for a capital move has continued. In 2004, a vote to move Alaska’s capital to Willow received 53% of votes in a 1976 statewide vote. This vote also had the effect of repealing the previous approval ofMoving the capital. The vote was also the first to repeal the FRANK Initiative. In 2006, voters rejected a measure. to fund a move to Willow, with 55% of vote against spending $996 million to move Capital there. In 1982, 53% votes voted against spending roughly $2.9 billion to moveCapital to Willow. In 2008, voters. again voted. against moving Capital to Willow and instead voted to keep Juneau as the state capital.

Government and politics

The City and Borough of Juneau operates under a councilmanager form of government. The mayor is the titular head of the city, is the presiding officer (or chair) of the Juneau Assembly (council), and is one of three members of that body elected at-large, or areawide. The remaining six members are elected by single-member districts: two districts have been defined by the Assembly, as of its last redistricting in 2003: 2nd Assembly District and 31st Assembly District. The last Republican to represent Juneau in the state Senate was Elton Engstrom, Jr., the father of Cathy Muñoz. The borough has voted Democratic in the U.S. presidential election in every election (except for one) since 1988. The federal government has a nine-story federal building in Juneau. Along Gold Creek near its mouth, the building houses numerous federal agencies, the United States District Court for the District of Alaska, and Juneau's main post office. It was designed by Linn A. Forrest and constructed in 1966. Under the Alaska Statehood Act, the Federal and Territorial Building was transferred to the new state for use as its capitol. Juneau was split into two state house districts by the state in the early 1990s. The districts comprising downtown Juneau, Douglas Island and surrounding areas have exclusively elected Democrats to the Alaska House of Representatives, while the districts comprising Mendenhall Valley and surrounding area have mostly elected Republicans.


Juneau is served by the Juneau School District. The University of Alaska Juneau is within the Auke Bay community along the shore of Auke Lake. Juneau-Douglas Community College, founded in 1956, and Southeastern Senior College, established in 1972, were merged in 1980. The university was restructured as the University of Alaskan Southeast to include Ketchikan and Sitka campuses. TheUniversity of Alaska Fairbanks has a satellite campus in Juneau for marine studies, primarily graduate level. The city is home to the U.S. Air Force base at Juneau International Airport, which is located on the Alaska Peninsula. The Juneau Air Force Base is located at the base of the Alaska Range, which runs along the north shore of Juneau Lake. It is the only base for the Alaska Air Force Reserve and Alaska Air National Guard. The base is located near the town's main airport, Juneau Airport, and is known as the "Air Force Base" Juneau has a population of 2,816. The U.N. has a base in the city, and has an office in the town, which was established in the 1950s. It was the first of its kind in the United States, and opened in 1961. It has since become one of the busiest airports in the world, serving more than 1,000,000 passengers a day. It also has a major international airport, the Alaska International Air Force Station, which serves more than 2,100,000 people.

Air Quality, Water Quality, Superfund Sites & UV Index

The Air Quality index is in Juneau, Juneau City and Borough, Alaska = 45.8. These Air Quality index is based on annual reports from the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The number of ozone alert days is used as an indicator of air quality, as are the amounts of seven pollutants including particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, lead, and volatile organic chemicals. The Water Quality Index is 50. A measure of the quality of an area’s water supply as rated by the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The EPA has a complex method of measuring the watershed quality, using 15 indicators such as pollutants, turbidity, sediments, and toxic discharges. The Superfund Sites Index is 98. Higher is better (100=best). Based upon the number and impact of EPA Superfund pollution sites in the county, including spending on the cleanup efforts. The UV Index in Juneau = 1.6 and is a measure of an area's exposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays. This is most often a combination of sunny weather, altitude, and latitude. The UV Index has been defined by the WHO ( and is uniform worldwide.


The most recent city population of 32,255 individuals with a median age of 39.1 age the population dropped by -0.31% in Juneau, Juneau City and Borough, Alaska population since 2000 and are distributed over a density of 11.93 residents per square mile of area (4.61/km²). There are average 2.57 people per household in the 11,675 households with an average household income of $76,426 a year. The unemployment rate in Alabama is 6.50% of the available work force and has dropped -1.06% over the most recent 12-month period and the projected change in job supply over the next decade based on migration patterns, economic growth, and other factors will increase by 31.38%. The number of physicians in Juneau per 100,000 population = 254.6.


The annual rainfall in Juneau = 56.8 inches and the annual snowfall = 95 inches. The annual number of days with measurable precipitation (over .01 inch) = 222. The average number of days per year that are predominantly sunny = 86. 64 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily high temperature for the month of July and 18.9 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily low temperature for the month of January. The Comfort Index (higher=better) is 87, where higher values mean a more pleasant climate. The Comfort Index measure recognizes that humidity by itself isn't the problem. (Have you noticed nobody ever complains about the weather being 'cold and humid?) It's in the summertime that we notice the humidity the most, when it's hot and muggy. Our Comfort Index uses a combination of afternoon summer temperature and humidity to closely predict the effect that the humidity will have on people.

Median Home Cost

The percentage of housing units in Juneau, Juneau City and Borough, Alaska which are owned by the occupant = 59.01%. A housing unit is a house, apartment, mobile home, or room occupied as separate living quarters. The average age of homes = 29 years with median home cost = $248,490 and home appreciation of 4.51%. This is the value of the years most recent home sales data. Its important to note that this is not the average (or arithmetic mean). The median home price is the middle value when you arrange all the sales prices of homes from lowest to highest. This is a better indicator than the average, because the median is not changed as much by a few unusually high or low values. The property tax rate of $11.48 shown here is the rate per $1,000 of home value. If for simplification for example the tax rate is $14.00 and the home value is $250,000, the property tax would be $14.00 x ($250,000/1000), or $3500. This is the 'effective' tax rate.


The local school district spends $6,015 per student. There are 16.5 students for each teacher in the school, 869 students for each Librarian and 360 students for each Counselor. 6.70% of the area’s population over the age of 25 with an Associate Degree or other 2-year college degree, 23.14% with a master’s degree, Ph.D. or other advanced college degree and 13.14% with high school diplomas or high school equivalency degrees (GEDs).

  • Juneau's population in Juneau City and Borough, Alaska of 1,864 residents in 1900 has increased 17,3-fold to 32,255 residents after 120 years, according to the official 2020 census.

    Approximately 49.56% female residents and 50.44% male residents live in Juneau, Juneau City and Borough, Alaska.

    As of 2020 in Juneau, Juneau City and Borough, Alaska are married and the remaining 43.95% are single population.

  • 18 minutes is the average time that residents in Juneau require for a one-way commute to work. A long commute can have different effects on health. A Gallup poll in the US found that in terms of mental health, long haul commuters are up to 12 percent more likely to experience worry, and ten percent less likely to feel well rested. The Gallup poll also found that of people who commute 61­–90 minutes each day, a whopping one third complained of neck and back pain, compared to less than a quarter of people who only spend ten minutes getting to work.

    63.56% of the working population which commute to work alone in their car, 18.53% of the working population which commutes to work in a carpool, 4.28% of the population that commutes using mass transit, including bus, light rail, subway, and ferry. 4.29% of the population that has their home as their principal place of work.

  • Of the total residential buildings in Juneau, Juneau City and Borough, Alaska, 59.01% are owner-occupied homes, another 32.92% are rented apartments, and the remaining 8.06% are vacant.

  • The 28.27% of the population in Juneau, Juneau City and Borough, Alaska who identify themselves as belonging to a religion are distributed among the following most diverse religions.

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